Web 3.0 Data Space

The Web 3.0 Data Space is the ultimate goal of the Post-Platforms Initiative

The first part of it’s name is self-explanatory: Web 3.0 is a natural name for the ecosystem we are building, as it inherits the best from Web 1.0 (convenience of data access control on personal web-servers) and from Web 2.0 (aggregating power of platforms). Our vision of Web 3.0 is also perfectly compatible with the Semantic Web concept and with the Solid project by Tim Berners-Lee.

The second part of the name does require some explanation.

The Data Space became widely known after it was introduced by the European Commission in 2021, and since then many different visions of the Data Space concept were suggested (e.g. International Data Spaces (IDS) or Gaia-X).

The Post-Platforms vision of Data Space is the most revolutionary, but also the most natural.

Today Web3 is often associated with blockchain. In our case, we do not use blockchain-based technologies in any form

Introduction

The Data Space is formed of billions, and at some point in the future, of trillions of independent servers, PODs, for every person, company, or object, where all the data by and about them is stored at source. They all constitute a gigantic decentralized machine-readable Data Space, where every element is always up to date and every data transaction is identified and secure. This new ecosystem of trillions of “data at source” PODs has rather unusual consequences.

In the world of the Web 3.0 Data Space, governments and corporations won’t need databases.

Let's explore the example of John Smith's house.

Today, various pieces of information about the same house are stored in dozens of public and private databases, comprising data silos: the Cadastre, municipalities, fire department, banks, insurance companies, service organizations, water and electricity suppliers, and so on.


Let's assume that the house has its own POD server, and each organization mentioned above continues working with their own centralized databases, but also writes an authorized copy of its data to the house’s POD:

  • One day the Municipality changes the name of the street from Yellow St. to Green St. and puts a new copy of the signed record to the John’s house POD
  • Another day service organization repairs the roof and also puts an authorized record to the house POD

When John calls the Cadastre for some registration purposes, the Cadastre Officer will be surprised that the data on the POD (the new address and the new energy class) is more up-to-date than the data in the original Cadastre database. The same will be true for insurance, mortgage, police, etc. databases.

At first, the Cadastre considered its database the Original, the records on the PODs being Copies. But soon it becomes obvious that the Cadastre record at the POD is the Original, and their own database of the Cadastre is a Copy. This represents the essence of the Web 3.0 Data Space: the Original Data is stored in a natural way at PODs where it belongs, while government and corporate databases become outdated Copies, which could be used only for cache purposes.

Therefore there is no reason for Governments to keep own centralized databases in the world of Web 3.0 Data Space, as the decentralized pool of PODs will always have the most recent data. Actually, it concerns corporations as well. Databases (as we used to understand them) will disappear everywhere.

But worry not: the authorities will stay in full control of their key data. They will keep their data at our end (at the very place where changes happen), working with it as we work with shared documents, and all their records will be signed and controlled by them. It means that our personal POD will store two types of data:

  • Our personal data (messages, posts, transactions, photo, texts, etc., as well as auxiliary data about us)
  • Content from public and private institutions, created and controlled by them

In a certain sense, the Data Space brings us back to the natural non-digital interaction with information. When we are interested in the name of a person and where she works, we turn to her directly, not to the municipality or to the tax authority. And if we are interested in what color the house is and what it is built of, we just come and have a look, instead of calling the Cadastre.

Its Structure

The Web 3.0 Data Space concept leads to the following rather simple structure:

1

The pool of billions PODs for people, organizations and things represent the Data Space itself. PODs are not interconnected amongst them. They are accessed only by and via platforms (we call them post-platforms).

2

Post-platforms get controlled access to PODs, read them and write back on them. Specific users who get access to specific data on PODs, and it does not matter which platform they use. These post-platforms are not interconnected amongst them and they do not hold any original data, just cache copies.

3

Personal PODs keep data created by its owner, but also public and third-party data.

4

The Web 3.0 Data Space represents a form of Metaverse, in two ways:

  • Every platform stretches itself to cover as many services as possible, as it becomes easier to enter new markets and new niches. Such platforms can be transformed into Metaverses.
  • All these post-platforms deal with the same pool of data from PODs, and this pool is in a sense a Metaverse itself.
Use Cases

Individual PODs keep all the information originated by a person via their online activities, including sent messages, posts, transactions, various files they created, etc. The same storage also keeps track of all messages, comments, and reactions they or their content ever received. Last but not least, organizations and public authorities also record on the POD every piece of information about its owner's identity and legal liabilities, and this data cannot be changed or deleted by anyone but their authors.

Examples
  • When you change your name (after marriage or for other reasons) or move to another address, this information is updated everywhere at once and every authority or organization you interact with instantly learns about this change
  • Every doctor you visit can have access to your entire health records, signed by respective medical professionals who made each entry
  • You can search for any information or message without remembering which mailbox or messenger you used when sent/received it
  • Your CV is fully transparent and verifiable, since your job records are digitally signed by your former employers and your diplomas are certified by your University

Every legal entity also stores all the information related to its business and legal interactions on its POD. Just like individual ones, their PODs become unique focal points for their data. The Web 3.0 Data Space concept also implies that sooner or later, every real estate, vehicle, device, or even many parts of them will have their own separate PODs. All information regarding their history (ownership, origin, modifications, adjustments etc.), their future (resource left, maintenance scheduled), and their interactions with other subjects and objects will become available to their owners, manufacturers, regulators, partners etc.

Examples
  • When your company applies for a grant or participates in a call for tenders, it can share a fully verifiable track record of all its past projects and can automatically generate audited consolidated accounts at any moment
  • Your contractors and customers information is never outdated because your company takes it directly from their PODs
  • A cable company will see interactions with other underground pipes/cables as soon as they design the 3D model of their new project, as all other models of existing underground infrastructure are available in the common Data Space, although kept at PODs of their owners
  • Both city authorities and residents have a permanently up-to-date list of all electricity and internet providers currently available in every building
  • When a vehicle has an accident, is repaired or simply maintained, all this information in recorded on its POD and will be available to its future buyer
  • Some spare parts will be ordered automatically by vehicles, machines, and devices themselves on behalf of their owners
The Web 3.0 Data Space concept makes the physical world intensely data-rich and merges online and offline interactions into a single yet fully decentralized metaverse

European Common Data Spaces

The Post-Platforms Initiative is entering the actively developing domain of technologies and approaches of innovation in data sharing.

  • In Europe in the recent years, institutions, businesses, and legislators have been discussing issues related to the data economy which resulted in the ambitious European Strategy for Data, set to fund the new generation of ecosystems for data sharing -- the Common European Data Spaces, and the Data Act, a set of legislative measures to ensure fairness and competitiveness in the digital environment

  • Our Web3.0 Data Space concept is fully aligned with the principles and requirements of the European Common Data Spaces. The Initiative is a member of the International Data Space Alliance, the international consortium of organisations working on the technological foundations for the data spaces and is set to collaborate with the Data Space Support Centre to develop the blueprint of how the Web3.0 Data Space implements European specifications for data spaces.